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Biology Chapter 2 Vocabulary


Chapter 2 Vocabulary List

• 4 components of living things: carbohydrates; lipids; nucleic acids; proteins
• acid: 0-6.5 on the pH scale
• activation energy: the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
• adhesion: attraction between molecules of different substances
• atoms: the building blocks of matter
• base: 7.5-14 on the pH scale
• carbohydrates: major source of energy for most living things
• carbon: an element that can bond with many elements and form unlimited chains
• catalyst: speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
• chemical reaction: process that changes or transforms elements or compounds
• cohesion: attraction between molecules of the same substance
• compound: two or more elements chemically combined
• covalent bonds: when electrons are shared between two atoms
• electron: negatively charged particle of an atom that orbits around the nucleus and is 1/1840 the size of a proton
• element: a pure substance with only one type of atom
• enzyme: acts like a catalyst in living things because it speeds up reactions in cells
• hydrogen bonds: hold water molecules, not as strong as chemical bonds but strongest a molecule can form
• ionic bonds: when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other
• lipids: used to store energy
• macromolecules: large molecules formed from many small molecules
• mixture: 2 or more elements or compounds physically mixed but not chemically combined nd it can be separated
• molecule: smallest unit of most compounds
• monosaccharide: single sugar
• neutral substance: 6.5-7.5 on the pH scale
• neutron: part of atom with no charge in the nucleus
• nucleic acids: store and transmit genetic information ex: RNA and DNA
• pH scale: scale that describes how acidic or basic a substance is
• polar: one end is positive, the other is negative
• polysaccharide: many sugars linked
• product: what comes out of a chemical reaction
• proteins: regulate cell processes like timing and order of how things work, made of amino acids
• proton: positively charged part of an atom in the nucleus
• reactant: what goes into the reaction
• solute: what is being dissolved
• solution: water and a dissolved substance
• solvent: what it is being dissolved in
• suspension: water and a non-dissolved material