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Exploring the Web and Network

The Web and Network

MODULE 3


Pre-Test
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer/s. Write your answer/s on a separate sheet of paper.
1. You open a web site with a link about global warming. What will you do to view the information in the link in a separate window?
a. Click the link for the global warming.
b. Type the keyword global warming in the address bar and then click New Page.
c. Type the keyword global warming in the Search box.
d. Right-click the link, then click the Open in New Window option.

2. Liza is chatting with her cousin living in Europe. What do you call the network that transfers the messages from Liza’s computer to her cousin’s computer and vice-versa?
a. Ethernet
b. Intranet
c. Internet
d. Local area network (LAN)

3. To access the Internet, which of the following you must use?
a. E-mail Address
b. Search Engine
c. Web browser
d. Web Site

4. Which one of the following URLs is valid?
a. www\\education.com
b. http\\:www.education.com
c. http://com.education.www
d. http://www.education.com
5. Angela Dane wants to chat with his friend over the Internet, which program will allow her to do that?
a. Microsoft Office Access 2003
b. Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003
c. Microsoft Office Word 2003
d. Microsoft Windows Messenger
6. In creating an e-mail account, a password is required. Which of the following passwords is considered a strong password?
a. 123
b. QWERTY
c. RSancso#154
d. stongword
7. A game is to be accessed in website; however you cannot access it because enhanced content is embedded on it. Which software you must install on your computer to play the game?
a. Web portal
b. Plug-in
c. Web browser
d. Search engine
8. Four of your friends simultaneously download a large article from the Internet.
If your friends have the connections shown in the table, who will be the first one to finish downloading the file?

Name Connection Type
Angela Dane T1
Daniel Dave Cable
Jig Benette DSL
Mark Angelo Dial-up

a. Angela Dane
b. Daniel Dave
c. Jig Benette
d. Mark Angelo

9. In sending an e-mail to a friend, you must have her _________?
a. Company address
b. E-mail address
c. Home address
d. Telephone number

10. You teacher requires you to research about branches of science. Upon searching on the net, you have found a website and decided to copy the content but did not include the source. What type of violation have you demonstrated in this case?
a. Defamation
b. Gambling
c. Libel
d. Plagiarism

11. To avoid virus attacks by an email, you should __________?
a. Avoid opening e-mail attachments from unknown users.
b. Copy attachments to your computer before you open them.
c. Reinstall the e-mail client periodically.
d. Reply to spam e-mail messages.
12. You receive an e-mail message asking you to share your name, age, and bank account number in order to receive a special price .What should you do?
a. Delete the e-mail message
b. Forward the e-mail message to friends.
c. Send your personal information in order to receive the discount.
d. Use a spyware-fighting program.
13. Which statement is true?
a. You can use e-mail to scan pictures.
b. You can use e-mail to send fax messages.
c. You can use e-mail to send text and picture messages.
d. You can use e-mail to create program.
14. The following are the activities involved in surfing the net. Which of the following actions displays a copyright violation?
a. Comment on a blog site
b. Quoting a paragraph and not mentioning the source
c. Reading material from a publicly available Web site
d. Sharing a Web site address

15. Angela accidentally leaves her social account open in a computer shop. After a week, she sees one of her pictures uploaded in a website without her permission. What violation has been transpired in this case?
a. Accidental erasure of data
b. Damage to computer because of an earthquake
c. Hardware failure
d. Theft of confidential data
Lesson 1 Familiarize Themselves With The Networking concepts


Description:
This lesson covers one of the performance required in exploring Microsoft 2010 application.
In this lesson the student should be able to
• learn about networks;
• learn the difference between topologies and other networks;
• understand Intranet, Extranet and network security; and
• understand Ethernet and wireless network.

For you to satisfactory complete this lesson, you are expected to
• get a score of at least twenty (20) points in activity – Networking Fundamentals;
• get a score of at least eight (8) points in activity – Ethernet and Wireless Technology;
• get a score of at least eight (8) points in activity – Intranet, Extranet, Internet and Network Security; and
• pass the assessment of this lesson.
Information Sheet 1.1
Networking Fundamentals

In this lesson you will look at what a networks is and how it relates to living online. You will be familiar on what a network is, the network standards, different type of networks, what is required to connect to a network and the advantages and disadvantages of being connected to a network.

What is a Network?


Figure 1.2 Basic components of network
A network is several computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables or radio signals. This allows the computers to “talk” with each other and share information and resources (usually files and printers). Networks vary in size; they can be as small as two computers connected to each other by a cable, or they can span the entire globe—the Internet is actually the world’s largest network.

The collections of interconnected computer networks around the world make up the Internet. People connected to the network can share resources and information. Computer programs can be used and accessed simultaneously.

Types of Network

Computer network can be categorized according to range, functional relationship and topology.

A. Computer Network According to Range.
1. Local Area Network ( LAN) – A network that connects computers in the same geographic area or within a local area, such as, building, room, a home or a school’s computer laboratory. Computers in this kind of network can be interconnected through cables or wireless links.

2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – MAN is larger network than LAN. It usually covers several offices, buildings or schools, each with their own LAN but connected to each other in the same locality or place.

3. Wide Area Network (WAN) - A network that connects computers across a large geographic area using telephone lines or satellites. The Internet is actually a huge Wide Area Network.

B. Computer Network According to Functional Relationship
1. Peer-to-Peer Network - In a peer-to-peer network, everyone stores their files on their own computer, and anyone on the network can access files stored on any other computer. Because you don’t need any additional software (Windows 7 includes peer-to-peer networking), peer-to-peer networking is an inexpensive way to connect computers in a small office or home. The disadvantages of a peer-to-peer network are that it doesn’t offer as much security as client/server networks, and it can be difficult to find files that are stored on many different computers. Windows 7 Home is designed for use in small home and office peer-to-peer networks.


2. Client/Server Network: In a client/server network, everyone stores their files on a central computer called a server. Everyone on the network can access the files stored on the server. Client/server networks are more secure, easier to administer, and much more powerful than peer-to-peer networks. That’s why they are used to connect computers in most businesses. The types of computers that can be used as servers include mainframe computers, minicomputers and powerful PC, Macintosh, or UNIX computers. Clients can use PCs, Macintosh computers, handheld devices, etc.


C. Computer Network According to Topology

Topology refers to the layout or structure of the network in relation with the flow of data. The most common types of topologies are:

1. Star Topology - The most commonly applied topology. Uses a central device (hub) with cables extending in all directions.

2. Linear Bus Topology – Linear bus topology uses one long cable, referred to as backbone, to which computers and other devices are attached. A terminator is placed at each end of the backbone to keep the signals from bouncing back and being received again by the nodes in the network.

3. Ring Topology- It is consists of several computers joined together to form a circle. Data moves from one computer to the next in one direction only. Any data or messages will pass through adjacent nodes until it reaches the target node.

4. Hybrid Topology- Hybrid topology is a combination of different types of topology used in a network system to adapt to the different design of floors or rooms in a building.

Types of Internet Connections

A. Narrowband
Connection Rates Advantages Disadvantages
1. Dial-up 24 kbps to 56 kbps inexpensive Slowest connections, you cannot use the telephone for the Internet and phone calls for the same time.
2. Integrated Services Digital Network 128 kbps Better than dial-up ISDN connections are considered still more or less outdated.
B. Broadband
1. Cable connections 1.5 Mbps up to 7.5 Mbps Very fast and reliable connection with fixed monthly fee. Not available in all areas
2. Digital Subscriber Line Broadband 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps Excellent Internet connection.

DSL allows you to use telephone normally while connected to the Internet. DSL connections is much costlier tan dial-up.
3. Dedicated Leased Line 1,544,000 bps DLL allows you to upload and download large files quickly.

High speed connection that is directly from ISP’s network. DLL is much more expensive than cable and DSL connections.

Available mostly in United States, Canada and Japan.


4. Wireless Connections 256 Kbps to as much as 10+ Mbps Anyone with WiFi ready gadgets and devices can be connected to the Internet anywhere in the world without any cords or wires for as long as you are in a WiFi hotzone. You have to stay within a WiFi Hotzone.

Activity Sheet 1.1
Networking Fundamentals

A. Direction: Identify what is asked.
_______ 1. It is consists of several computers joined together to form a circle.
_______ 2. A network that connects computers in the same geographic area or within a local area, such as, building, room, a home or a school’s computer laboratory.
_______ 3. Uses one long cable, referred to as backbone, to which computers and other devices are attached.
_______ 4. A network that connects computers across a large geographic area using telephone lines or satellites.
_______ 5. It is a combination of different types of topology used in a network system to adapt to the different design of floors or rooms in a building.
B. Direction: Supply the missing information
C. Narrowband
Connection Rates Advantages Disadvantages
3. Dial-up
4. Integrated Services Digital Network
D. Broadband
1. Cable connections
2. Digital Subscriber Line Broadband
3. Dedicated Leased Line
4. Wireless Connections

Key Answer

Activity Sheet 1.1
Networking Fundamentals

1. Ring Topology
2. Local Area Network
3. Linear bus Topology
4. Wide Area Network
5. Hybrid Topology
B.
A. Narrowband
Connection Rates Advantages Disadvantages
5. Dial-up 24 kbps to 56 kbps inexpensive Slowest connections, you cannot use the telephone for the Internet and phone calls for the same time.
6. Integrated Services Digital Network 128 kbps Better than dial-up ISDN connections are considered still more or less outdated.
B. Broadband
1. Cable connections 1.5 Mbps up to 7.5 Mbps Very fast and reliable connection with fixed monthly fee. Not available in all areas
2. Digital Subscriber Line Broadband 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps Excellent Internet connection.

DSL allows you to use telephone normally while connected to the Internet. DSL connections is much costlier tan dial-up.
3. Dedicated Leased Line 1,544,000 bps DLL allows you to upload and download large files quickly.

High speed connection that is directly from ISP’s network. DLL is much more expensive than cable and DSL connections.

Available mostly in United States, Canada and Japan.


4. Wireless Connections 256 Kbps to as much as 10+ Mbps Anyone with WiFi ready gadgets and devices can be connected to the Internet anywhere in the world without any cords or wires for as long as you are in a WiFi hotzone. You have to stay within a WiFi Hotzone.

Information Sheet 1.2
Ethernet and Wireless Technology












Figure 1.1 The network shown here contains the most common components that you will find on a small network
To create a network you should decide what kind of network you will make to share the printer, files and Internet access. The biggest networking decision you will have to make is if you want an Ethernet-based network or a wireless (WiFi) one. Both have their own set of advantages and disadvantages.
Ethernet Network
Ethernet is a computer network technology used in a local area network. It is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards.










Figure 1.2 The figure shows a small Ethernet network using LAN,
Star topology and Peer-To-Peer relationship
Developed in the early 1970s , (Ethernet is one of the most simple, reliable, and long-lived networking protocols ever designed. Its high speed, reliability, and simplicity have made Ethernet easily the most common and popular way to connect computers and devices in a network.
To get an idea of how Ethernet works, imagine several people trying to talk in an unmediated meeting. There isn’t a schedule of when each person can get a chance to speak; people can simply stand up and talk whenever there is silence in the room. And, if two or more people stand up and talk at the same time, a collision occurs. When that happens, both parties sit back down for a very brief, random amount of time, then one of them will stand up and try talking again—hopefully without any interruptions or collisions this time. And, obviously the amount of collisions on a network will increase as more computers and network traffic are added. An Ethernet switch can greatly reduce the number of collisions on an Ethernet network by intelligently managing network traffic.
Here are some of the basic advantages and disadvantages of going with an Ethernet network:
Ethernet Advantages
• Reliability: Ethernet has been around for a long, long time and nothing beats it for its dependability.
• Support: Most computers—desktops and laptops alike—already have an Ethernet card built right into them!
• Speed: Ethernet is fast; most Ethernet networks can transfer information at up to 100 Mbps—usually more than twice as fast as the best wireless networks. And the new Gigabit Ethernet standard can handle a jaw-dropping 1,000 Mbps of network traffic.
• Security: Because it doesn’t broadcast network information over the airwaves like WiFi, Ethernet is theoretically more secure—someone would have to tap into the network’s lines in order to access it (something called the Internet).

Ethernet Disadvantages
• Wires, wires, wires: The computers in an Ethernet network must be physically
connected by cables that resemble a fat telephone cord. It’s not a big deal if you want to connect two computers that are sitting right next to each other, but it is a pain to run all that Ethernet cable if you want to connect a computer in your office upstairs with another computer in the basement.

What You Need to Create an Ethernet Network

Besides the rather obvious and most important part of the network, which are the actual computers, you’ll need a few things to create a small Ethernet network, including:


• Network Hub or Switch: A hub is a device where all the cables on a network connect, similar to an electrical surge protector. A switch is an “intelligent hub” that manages network traffic, ensuring that information gets to the correct destination.






• Ethernet Cable: An Ethernet cable is the wire that physically connects the computers, printers, and other equipment on a network. When you buy an Ethernet cable make sure that it’s CAT-5.


• Ethernet Network Interface Cards: A network interface card (NIC) is a device that physically connects each computer to the network and allows your computer to talk to other computers and devices on the network. Most computers already come with a network adapter built-in, but if yours doesn’t you can install one; a PCI network adapter for desktops or a PCMCIA network card adapter for laptops.


• Cable Modem or DSL Modem (Optional): A modem connects computers to the Internet through an existing phone line or cable connection. Cable modems and DSL modems are both very fast and can connect all the computers in a home or small office network to the Internet. If you subscribe to a high-speed Internet service they will almost certainly set up the cable modem or DSL modem for you.


Ethernet devices are available in a number of speeds (although the vast majority uses the 100 Base-T standard). The following table describes common Ethernet speeds.

Standard Speed Description
10 Base – T 10 Mbps Ten years ago, 10 Base-T was the standard speed of most Ethernet networks, but it’s all but obsolete now. You may still find 10 Base-T Ethernet on older network devices, or on devices that simply don’t require any more bandwidth, like a cable or DSL modem.
1Base –T ( Fast Ethernet) 100 Mbps 100 Base-T Ethernet is by far the most common Ethernet
standard in use. It’s fast—ten times faster than 10 Base-T, yet it can still communicate with 10 Base-T network devices; at only 10 Mbps, however.
Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet is a new Ethernet standard that works just like 10 Base-T Ethernet, only ten times faster. Gigabit Ethernet can still talk to 100 Base-T and even 10 Base-T network devices. Because it’s so new, Gigabit Ethernet devices are still quite expensive.


Connection/Cabling Options
There is a variety of connection or cabling options available to access information to or from a network. Newer connection types allow the data to be transferred between a computer and the network to flow much faster; with the costs of these connection types dropping significantly, more people are choosing to either set up or switch to a faster connection method. Some of the more popular connection options include:
• Twisted Pair - It is composed of 4 pairs of copper wires which are intertwined or twisted in pairs for the purposes of canceling out unwanted signals which can cause undesired results in the network. This is one of the mostly widely used communications media because it is inexpensive and widely unavailable. Many uses the Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) since the lack of shielding makes it more flexible.










Figure 1.5 Twisted Pair and its parts
Courtesy of http://infocellar.com

• Coaxial - This is a wire with a center wire surrounded with insulation and then a grounded cover of braided wire to minimize electrical and radio frequency interference. This cable type used to be the main type of cable used for company networks or television transmission, with most company networks using Ethernet specifications in their network configuration.














Figure 1.6 Coaxial cable and its components
Courtesy of http://national-tech.com

• Fiber Optics - A fiber optic cable is made up of bundled glass or plastic fibers (threads) to transmit data. This option is generally faster than coaxial cable as it has a much larger bandwidth for transmitting data and is much less susceptible to interference that occurs with metal cables.













Figure 1.6 Fiber Optic cable and its components


• Wireless - This is quickly becoming the connection option of choice as it does not require any cables to be set in your home or office. There currently are three types of connections available for a specific use: cell phone, home, and office. In order to be connected in a wireless environment, each computer must have a network card with a wireless
interface and an access point. Wireless devices work with radio frequencies for data transmission.

• Infrared - This wireless option works with infrared light waves in order to transmit data. Some newer devices such as printers have an infrared device installed which then allows you to print a document to that printer provided you have an infrared wireless network card installed on your notebook. The one downside to using infrared is that the amount of distance between the two devices is less than using a wireless device that works with radio frequencies.
Wireless Network


One of the hottest new technologies in the computer world is wireless networking or WiFi,which lets you connect computers without any wires. Wireless networks allow computers to “talk” to each other by broadcasting and receiving radio waves. Wireless networks are often simply part of a larger, Ethernet network.


Figure 1.1 Some of the Wireless connection

WiFi networking has its own set of advantages and disadvantages:

Wireless Networking Advantages

• Simplicity: Wireless networks are often very simple to set up because there aren’t any messy wires involved.
• Public Availability: If you have a laptop with WiFi capability you can browse the
Internet and check your e-mail from thousands of wireless hotspots in coffee shops,
airports, and hotels.
• Convenience: Wireless networks are downright cool—nothing is more amazing than
browsing the Web on your laptop while you’re sitting in the living room in front of the television or outside on the porch.

Wireless Networking Disadvantages

• Security: …or lack thereof. WiFi broadcasts information just like a radio transmitter, so it can be easy for an unauthorized computer to listen in and gain access to your network.

There are a number of ways to secure a wireless network; the problem is that many people simply don’t know how to do it.

• Interference: A wireless network shares the same crowded frequency as other wireless networks—and cordless phones too! All those devices can cause a lot of interference and as a result many wireless networks are quite unreliable.

Hotspots and Access Points

You can find wireless network hotspots that let you browse the Internet and check your e-mail in many places outside the home or office. A hotspot is a place where you can connect to a wireless network. There are many wireless hotspots now available in such places as restaurants, hotels, coffee shops and airports.

Wireless Security

Wireless network hotspots can be open or secure. If a hotspot is open, then anyone with a
wireless network card can access the hotspot. If the hotspot is secure, then the user will usually need to know the WEP key to connect to it. WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy, and it is a way to encrypt the information that a wireless network sends through the air. There are two variations of WEP: 64-bit encryption (really 40-bit) and 128-bit encryption (really 104-bit). 40-bit encryption was the original standard but it was easily broken. 128-bit encryption is more secure and is what most wireless networks use.

What You Need to Add a Wireless Hotspot to an Existing Network

If you already have several computers connected by an Ethernet network you can easily add a WiFi hotspot to the mix. Here’s what you’ll need:

• Wireless Access Point: A wireless access point normally plugs into a wired Ethernet network and acts as the network’s “radio station”, broadcasting and receiving information to and from WiFi-enabled computers and devices on the network. Try to get an access point that uses the 802.11g wireless standard, described in Table 1-5: WiFi Network Standards.

• Wireless Network (WiFi) Cards: Any computers you want to connect to a wireless network must have a wireless network or WiFi card. WiFi is already built in to many newer laptops. If your laptop doesn’t have WiFi you can buy a PCMCIA card or an external USB port adapter. For desktop computers, you’ll need a PCI card that you install inside the machine, or a external USB port adapter. Try to get cards that use the 802.11g wireless standard, described in Table 1-5: WiFi Network Standards.

In a typical home or office, your new hotspot will cover about 100 feet in all directions, although walls and floors do dramatically reduce this range.

What You Need to Create a Wireless Network from Scratch

Even if you’re starting at the very beginning, there’s no need to get discouraged. Here’s what you’ll need:

• Wireless Access Point or Wireless Router: If you’re building a network from scratch you will probably want to use a wireless router instead of a wireless access point. A wireless router is a single device that contains: 1) A port to connect to a cable or DSL modem, 2) a firewall, 3) an Ethernet hub, 4) a router, and of course, 5) a wireless access point.
• Wireless Network (WiFi) Cards: Once again, any computers you want to connect toa wireless network must have WiFi networking cards or adapters installed.
• Cable Modem or DSL Modem (Optional): A modem connects computers to the Internet through an existing phone line or cable connection. Cable modems and DSL modems are both very fast and can connect all the computers in a home or small office network to the Internet. If you subscribe to a high-speed Internet service they will almost certainly set up the cable modem or DSL modem for you.

If wireless networking wasn’t complicated enough, there are several different wireless standards out there that you have to be aware of. Table 1-5: WiFi Network Standards briefly describes these standards.

Standard Speed Range Description
802.11b 10Mbps 150 feet 802.11b was the first version to reach the market. It is the most common, inexpensive, and, at only 10 Mbps, the slowest of all wireless standards.
802.11a 54Mbps 100 feet 802.11a was a short-lived standard that was much faster (54 Mbps) than 802.11b but had a shorter range. 802.11a is incompatible with the 802.11b standard, so don’t expect to find it in your local coffee shop.
802.11g 54 Mbps 150 feet 802.11g combines the best of both worlds: It has the range of 802.11b and the speed of 802.11a. Best of all, 802.11g is fully compatible with the very common 802.11b standard. If you get any wireless network equipment make sure it conforms to the 802.11g wireless standard.



Activity Sheet 1.2
Ethernet and Wireless Technology

Direction: Supply lacking information
A. WiFi networks standards

Standard Speed Range
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g

B. Ethernet Devices

Standard Speed
10 Base – T
1Base –T ( Fast Ethernet)
Gigabit Ethernet

Key Answer

Activity Sheet 1.2
Ethernet and Wireless Technology

Direction: Supply lacking information
A. WiFi networks standards
Standard Speed Range
802.11b 10Mbps 150 feet
802.11a 54Mbps 100 feet
802.11g 54 Mbps 150 feet

B. Ethernet Devices
Standard Speed
10 Base – T 10 Mbps
1Base –T ( Fast Ethernet) 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps


Information Sheet 1.3
Intranets, Extranets, Internet and Security in a Network

An Intranet is a miniature version of the Internet that works within a company or organization. Web sites on an Intranet look and act just like any other Web sites, but can only be viewed by users within the company or organization. A firewall surrounds the Intranet and fends off unauthorized access.

An Extranet is similar to an Intranet, but while an Intranet is generally only accessible to users within same company or organization, an Extranet is accessible by authorized outside users. Business partners use Extranets to share information.

Like the Internet itself, Intranets and Extranets are used to share information. Secure Intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.

So what are the advantages of Intranets and Extranets? Both Intranets and Extranets can:

• Share Information: Intranets and Extranets offer a very simple and inexpensive way to make internal company documents, such as a phone directory, available to employees.
• Connect Documents: Documents on an Intranet or Extranet can be connected by hyperlinks, so users can easily jump from one related document to another.
• Use Special Software: Some software can only be used on an Intranet or Extranet, such as Web based e-mail programs.

Working in a network environment isn’t always fun and games, however; there are some important risks you need to consider and be aware of:

• Potential loss of autonomy, privacy, and security: The costs of connecting to a network are much greater than a standalone system.
• Potential of network-wide systems failure: This can result in a loss of access to network resources, such as network drives or modems.
• Vulnerability to a network virus attack: Because of the vast amounts of information being sent back and forth on a network, your chances for suffering a virus or hacking attack are much greater.

The risks of networks are managed through careful procedures performed by network administrators and other security personnel. A new user will be granted access to the network only after a network administrator has set up and authorized a login and password account.

When a user properly logs on to the network, their login and password is authenticated against a list of known users.

• Authorization of new users by a network administrator: In order to be granted access to a network, every user must be authorized and assigned an account by a network administrator.
• Authentication of users through proper login procedures: When a user properly logs on to the network, their username and password are authenticated against a list of known users.
• Protection from external threats using protective technology: Networks are protected from unauthorized access using hardware and software security systems such as firewalls.
• Regular monitoring of the network: Network administrators and security personnel monitor activity on a network to protect against unauthorized access or other security violations.

The Internet is the largest computer network in the world. It is often referred to as a “super network,” consisting of millions of computers all over the planet, all connected to each other.

The Internet was born in the 1960s when the United States military worried that a nuclear bomb could destroy its computer systems (there weren’t many of them back then). So it placed several computers far apart from each other and connected them with some super-fast telephone lines so that the computers could talk to each other. If a nuclear bomb blew up one computer, another computer could instantly take over; thus, the computer network wouldn’t go down. Years passed and other organizations, such as colleges and universities, started connecting their computers to this growing network to share information.

Although the Internet has been around a long time, it wasn’t until 1989 that Tim Berners-Lee thought of a wonderful idea called the World Wide Web. Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web or Web interchangeably, but in fact the terms are two separate, but related, things. The Internet is a massive network of networks that connects millions of computers to one another. A good analogy would be the cables that provide cable television. The World Wide Web is simply one way to communicate and share information over the Internet. Using our cable television analogy, the World Wide Web would simply be a single channel that is broadcast over the cable system.

The World Wide Web consists of millions of documents that are stored on hundreds of thousands of computers that are always connected to the Internet. These documents are called Web pages, and you can find Web pages on every subject imaginable—from your local newspaper to online catalogs to airline schedules, and much, much more.

Web pages are stored on Web servers. A Web server is a computer, not unlike your own computer, only bigger and faster. There are hundreds of thousands of Web servers located all over the world. Web servers are always connected to the Internet so that people can view their Web pages 24 hours a day.

In order to connect to the Internet, you must first make sure you have all the necessary hardware and software. First and foremost, you must have a machine that has the ability to connect to the Internet. Computers, handheld devices (such as PDAs), and wireless devices (such as cell phones) all have the ability to connect to the Internet.

Various types of hardware and software required to connect to the Internet include:

• A modem for accessing a network via telephone lines.
• Ethernet connectors and cables for direct network connection, or wireless connection devices for wireless network connection.
• Telecommunication software and network operating system software that allows client devices and telecommunication devices (such as modems) to communicate with a network.

Once all necessary components are installed, a computer can connect to the Internet via the “onramp” of a smaller computer network. For example, a computer user at a small company could gain access to the Internet via the company LAN.

Another way to gain access to the Internet is via an Internet Service Provider. ISPs provide an “onramp” to the Internet by maintaining hardware and software and a constant connection to the Internet. The responsibility of an ISP includes maintaining and supporting equipment, providing customer service and support, and protecting the network from threats and unauthorized access.
So what can you do once you’re connected to the Internet? Plenty. Table 1-3: What Can I do on the Internet? shows just a few of the many things there are to do on the Internet.

Task Description
Send and Receive E-mail Exchanging electronic mail (or e-mail) is the most used and most popular feature on the Internet. Just like regular paper mail, you can send and receive e-mail with people around the world, as long as they have access to a computer and the Internet. Unlike regular paper mail, e-mail is usually delivered to its destination almost instantly.
Browse the World Wide Web The World Wide Web is what most people think of when they think of the Internet—although it’s really only a part of the Internet. The World Wide Web is an enormous collection of interconnected documents stored on Web servers all over the world. The World Wide Web has information on every subject imaginable.
Join online discussions with newsgroups Newsgroups are discussion groups on the Internet that you can join to read and post messages to and from people with similar interests. There are thousands of newsgroups on topics such as computers, education, romance, hobbies, politics, religion, and more.
Chat with other online
users Chatting lets you communicate with people on the Internet instantly—no matter how far away they are! Most chats are text-based, meaning you have to type when you converse with people on the Internet. A growing number of chats have voice and even video capabilities—all without having to pay long distance changes.
Download software You can download pictures, demo programs, patches and drivers for your computer, and many other types of files and save them to your computer.
Listen to music and watch videos You can listen to sound on the Web, such as radio stations, or music by your favorite artists.




Activity 1.3
Intranet, Extranet, Internet and Network Security

Direction: Answer the following questions.
1. Differentiate Intranet from Internet and Extranet.
2. What are the advantages of Intranet and Internet?
3. What are the different hardware and software required to connect to the Internet?
Key Answer
Activity 1.3
Intranet, Extranet, Internet and Network Security

Direction: Answer the following questions.
1. Differentiate Intranet from Internet and Extranet.
a. An Intranet is a miniature version of the Internet that works within a company or organization. Web sites on an Intranet look and act just like any other Web sites, but can only be viewed by users within the company or organization. A firewall surrounds the Intranet and fends off unauthorized access.
b. An Extranet is similar to an Intranet, but while an Intranet is generally only accessible to users within same company or organization, an Extranet is accessible by authorized outside users. Business partners use Extranets to share information.
c. Like the Internet itself, Intranets and Extranets are used to share information. Secure Intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.

2. What are the advantages of Intranet and Internet?
• Share Information: Intranets and Extranets offer a very simple and inexpensive way to make internal company documents, such as a phone directory, available to employees.
• Connect Documents: Documents on an Intranet or Extranet can be connected by hyperlinks, so users can easily jump from one related document to another.
• Use Special Software: Some software can only be used on an Intranet or Extranet, such as Web based e-mail programs.

3. What are the different hardware and software required to connect to the Internet?
• A modem for accessing a network via telephone lines.
• Ethernet connectors and cables for direct network connection, or wireless connection devices for wireless network connection.
• Telecommunication software and network operating system software that allows client devices and telecommunication devices (such as modems) to communicate with a network.

Assessment:
Familiarize themselves with the Networking Concepts

1. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of networking?
a. The ability to share equipment.
b. The ability to broadcast information over the Internet.
c. The ability to use network software.
d. The ability to share information.

2. A WAN connects computers in the same building or facility. (True or False?)

3. What does LAN stand for?
a. Linked Area Network
b. Lots of Anarchy and Nonsense
c. Local Area Network
d. Linked Applications Node

4. An Intranet is a miniature version of the Internet that works on a network
within a company or organization. (True or False?)

5. The following are all types of computers that can be used as servers, except:
a. Minicomputers
b. UNIX computers
c. Mainframe computers
d. Handheld computers

6. Which of the following modems is the slowest?
a. ISDN
b. DSL
c. Cable
d. Telephone

7. All users on a network must be authorized by a network administrator.
(True or False?)

8. Which one of the following is NOT used to measure data transmission rates?
a. MPH
b. Kbps
c. Mbps
d. Bits per second

9. The Internet is a relatively small computer network, consisting of hundreds
of smaller computer networks. (True or False?)

10. Which of the following are examples of “high bandwidth” Internet connections?
a. Cable modem
b. Telephone
c. T1
d. DSL
Key Answer

Assessment:
Familiarize themselves with the Networking Concepts

1. C
2. False
3. C
4. D
5. True
6. A
7. True
8. A
9. False
10. C


Lesson 2 Understand Web Browser

Description:
This lesson covers one of the performances required in exploring Microsoft 2010 application.
In this lesson the student should be able to
• Understand Web browsers and addresses;
• Display a specific web page, and;
• identify the different elements of Web browser.

For you to satisfactory complete this lesson, you are expected to
• get a score of at least ten (10) points in activity – Opening and Closing Web Browser;
• pass the assessment of this lesson. 
Information 2.1
Using the Internet

In this lesson explains the ins and outs of Internet. If you have ever spent a sleepless night wondering what the Internet is and how to get started you’ll finally learn it all. But before we go through with this module, there are some key terms that should familiarize yourself with. These key terms will help you to acquainted with frequently used World Wide Web terminologies.

Term Definition
HTTP HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is a set of rules for transferring files on the World Wide Web. HTTP files can be text, graphics, sound, video, or any other multimedia file type. HTTP works like this: your browser (for example, Microsoft Internet Explorer) sends an HTTP request to a server for a certain group of Web pages. The server receives this request and sends the page(s) back to your computer.
HTML HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is a set of special codes referred to as “tags,” that describe the general structure of various kinds of documents that are linked together on the World Wide Web.
URL URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. This is an address for a file that is located somewhere on the Internet. Each URL is unique to the Web page that it links to. URLs are structured so that they contain a protocol, domain name, resource, and extension.
Hyperlink A hyperlink is a link from one word or image to another. Most commonly, a hyperlink will appear on a page as a blue underlined word or phrase (as seen in Figure 3-1), but they can also be images or animations. To use a hyperlink, you simply click on it with your mouse and it will instantly take you to the destination.
ISP ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. An ISP is a lot like a phone company, except instead of letting you make telephone calls to other people, an Internet Service Provider lets your computer connect to the Internet. Just like your telephone company, Internet Service Providers charge for their services -currently, the average rate seems to be about $20 per month for unlimited usage. You’ve probably already heard of the most famous Internet Service Provider - America Online, or AOL.
Plug-in A plug-in is a small piece of software that enriches a larger piece of software by adding features or functions. For example, a plug-in extends the capabilities of a Web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, by allowing the browser to run multimedia files.
FTP FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Much like HTTP, FTP is a set of rules for transferring files on the World Wide Web. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from the Web page developer’s computer to the Web server. FTP is also used to download files to your computer from another server.
Cookie A cookie consists of one or more pieces of information that are stored as text files on your computer. A Web server sends the cookie and the browser stores it. Each time the page is referenced, the browser resends the cookie to the original server. Cookies are most commonly used to store frequently used information, such as user ID numbers. They are not harmful, as their rotten reputation implies. They cannot transmit viruses, nor can they take any information from your computer back to the server. In fact, cookies can be helpful because they allow a server to recall any user-specific information.
Cache You automatically request files when you look at a Web page. These files are stored in a cache. A cache is simply a temporary storage place that is located in a subdirectory beneath the main directory for your browser. Caches are created so that when you return to a page that you have recently visited, the browser can get the page from the cache, rather than going back to the server. This saves time and reduces the amount of Internet traffic. Most Web browsers will allow you to manipulate the size of your cache.
Encryption When you encrypt something, you are putting it into a code that only authorized people can understand. This prevents unauthorized users from accessing personal or confidential information.
Firewall A firewall is a group of related programs that protect a private network from users from other networks. Basically, a firewall screens all incoming information before sending it off to its intended destination so the network stays secure -free from hackers, viruses, and any other types of security breaches.


Understanding Web Browsers

A Web browser is a software application that allows your computer to connect with, view, and navigate the World Wide Web. The Web browser is what finds, displays, and allows you to interact with and look at Web pages. Most Web browsers are graphical in nature, which means that they have the capability to show both text and images.

Why can’t I see certain images with my browser?

Some browsers may have trouble showing certain images or text. Most of the time, this has to do with an out-of-date browser. For example, if you have an older version of Netscape Navigator, you may not be able to see graphics and animations created using Macromedia Flash. This is because the browser does not understand what these graphics are.

Why do annoying advertisements keep popping up while I am using my browser?

Pop-ups are annoying advertisements windows that disrupt your browsing on the Web. Depending on the security settings, these annoying pop-ups may or may not show up while you are browsing the Web. Newer versions of Web browsers contain a handy-dandy program called a pop-up blocker that does just that: blocks unwanted pop-up ads from cluttering your computer screen. Make sure your computer security settings are up to date, and, if you don’t have a pop-up blocker, it would be in your best interest to install one.

What are some commonly used browsers?

Two of the most commonly used browsers are Internet Explorer (owned by Microsoft) and Netscape Navigator (owned by AOL). There are several other reputable browsers available for use. Take a look at Table 3-2: Commonly Used Web Browsers for more information.’

Web Browser Description
Internet Explorer Owned by Microsoft, the most popular browser on the market.
Netscape Navigator Owned by AOL, Netscape comes in at a close second to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
Opera Opera is an international Web browser that comes from Norway. It is new to the market and causing quite a stir with its popularity.
MSN Explorer Microsoft combined features from Internet Explorer, Outlook Express, MSN Messenger, and Windows Media Player into one application.

Basic general information of other known browsers: creator/company.

Browser Creator
Amaya
W3C, INRIA

AOL Explorer
America Online, Inc

Arora
Benjamin C. Meyer
Avant
Avant Force

Camino
The Camino Project
Chromium
Google

Dillo
Jorge Arellano Cid, Geerken, Rota, et al.
DocZilla CiTEC

Dooble
Dooble Team
ELinks
Baudis, Fonseca, et al.
Epiphany
Marco Pesenti Gritti
Flock
Flock Inc

Galeon
Marco Pesenti Gritti
Google Chrome
Google

GNU IceCat
GNU

iCab
Alexander Clauss
Internet Explorer
Microsoft,
Spyglass

Internet Explorer for Mac(Terminated)
Microsoft

K-Meleon
Dorian, KKO, et al.
Konqueror
KDE

Links
Patocka, et al.
Lunascape
Lunascape Corporation
Lynx
Montulli, Grobe, Rezac, et al.
Maxthon
Maxthon International Limited

Midori
Christian Dywan, et al.
Mosaic
Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina,NCSA

Mozilla
Mozilla Foundation

Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Foundation

Netscape (v.6-7)
Netscape Communications Corporation, AOL

Netscape Browser(v.8)
Mercurial Communications for AOL

Netscape Communicator(v.4) Netscape Communications

Netscape Navigator (v.1-4)
Netscape Communications

Netscape Navigator 9
Netscape Communications
(division of AOL)

NetSurf
The NetSurf Developers

OmniWeb
The Omni Group

Opera
Opera Software

Opera Mobile
Opera Software

Origyn Web Browser
Sand-labs
Safari
Apple Inc.

SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey Council

Shiira
Happy Macintosh Developing Team

Sleipnir
Fenrir Inc.
SlimBrowser
FlashPeak Inc.
WorldWideWeb (Later renamed Nexus) Tim Berners-Lee

w3m
Akinori Ito

Understanding Web Addresses

Web addresses, also called URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), are the unique addresses for documents, Web sites, and other resources available for browsing and downloading on the World Wide Web. Once a Web page has been requested using a Web address, a Web server (a computer that contains the Web site or other resource) sends the pages back to the computer that made the request. Figure 3-3 is an example of what a typical Web address looks like.

Web addresses consist of four parts: a protocol, a domain name, a resource to be located, and an extension.

• Protocol: The protocol tells the server which type of resource you are trying to locate.

The most common protocol is http://, or HyperText Transfer Protocol, as seen in Figure 3-3. This protocol tells the server that you are looking for a Web site. Most browsers assume that you are searching for a Web site, so when you type in the address you can usually leave the http:// out.

• Domain Name: The domain name is the address of the main Web page. The domain name indicates the company or individual that maintains the Web site. In our example, www.customguide.com indicates that CustomGuide, Inc. is the host of the site. Take a look at Table 3-4: Commonly Used Domain Name Extensions to familiarize yourself with the most common domain name extensions and the purposes for which they serve.

• Resource: A resource can be almost any computer-related item. You could be searching for a file, program, printer, disk drive, data, or memory. In Figure 3-3, the resource is computer training. This indicates that this address belongs to the “About Us” portion of the Custom Guide, Inc. Web site.

• Extension: The extension indicates what type of code or program is running the Web site. In Figure 3-3, the extension is .htm. This is a standard extension that indicates the site is running on UNIX machines or on a PC using Microsoft Windows. Addresses with an .htm extension run only static pages - meaning the content cannot be manipulated.

That’s all there is to a Web address. Pretty simple stuff, huh? Go ahead and take a look at the following table for some other examples of commonly used extensions.

Examples of Commonly Used Extensions

Extension Description
.html This site is run on UNIX machines, or PCs using Microsoft Windows. Addresses with an .html extension run only static pages - the content cannot be manipulated.
.shtml These sites are more flexible than .htm or .html sites. They contain tags that enable quick and easy changes to the content. In other words, these sites are not static.

Different types of Web sites can be identified simply by looking at their extension. Take a look at the following table to familiarize yourself with the most common ones.

TLD Description
.biz Reserved for businesses only
.com This is the most common Top Level Domain and it is reserved for commercial enterprises.
.edu Reserved for educational institutions and universities
.gov Reserved for United States government agencies
.mil Reserved for the United States military
.net This is most often used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), but it is reserved for any network group.
.org Reserved for non-profit organizations
.uk or .jp Web sites located outside of the U.S. will include a country code, such as .uk for the United Kingdom and .jp for Japan
.info Used in all types of domains

Understanding Secure Websites and Information Quality

A secure Web site is basically any site that contains information that is not for general public use. Either the information is confidential, or the user is simply a member of the site’s organization or a customer of the site’s company. For example, you may want to shop at a department store online. When you start your online shopping trip, you will most likely be asked to enter a user name and a password - and maybe some additional personal information. This is so that the next time you visit the Web site, you will have an ID and will be able to access the product in no time. Also, no one else will be able to shop under your user name or password, which provides you with an added sense of online security.

In order to gain access to the information provided on a protected Web site, one is required to enter both a user name and a password. You may be familiar with these terms, because most people employ a user name and password when they log onto their computers, or attempt to gain access to a private network. Read on for a more detailed description of each term.

User Name

A user name is an assigned name, or a name that you choose for yourself, that you must enter in order to gain access to a secure Web site, network, or computer. Usually, a user name is an abbreviation of the user’s full name. For example, if your name is John Doe, the abbreviation might be something like “JDoe.” A user name may also be an alias, or nickname.

A user name isn’t enough to gain access to a secure Web site. You must use the name in conjunction with a password.

Password

A password is a group of characters (letters, numbers, and/or symbols). Passwords are usually 4-16 characters long, depending on the Web site that you are trying to gain access to. They are used to determine whether or not the user that is requesting admittance to the secure Web site is actually the person they claim to be. Passwords generally do not have spaces. When you enter your password into the text box, it is usually replaced with bullets or another symbol so that no one else could read it off of your screen.

Take a look below for some tips on creating “unbreakable” passwords:

• Do not pick a password that could easily be guessed by someone who knows you well. Many people like to use the names of their pets, social security number, or birth date.

This is not a good idea.

• Do not use a word that directly relates to current affairs. Chances are, if it’s on your mind, it will be on someone else’s too.

• Do use a mixture of letters and numbers. This makes the amount of combinations almost endless!
• Do use a word that you’ll remember. You don’t want to keep yourself from accessing the secured information!

• Do change your password often, and when you do, don’t make your new password similar to the old one. Chances are, over time you will have told at least one person what your password is. Constantly changing things around ensures that your password remains secure.

That’s about all there is to know about user names, passwords, and using secure Web sites, but there is one more thing we need to cover before we move on to the next lesson.

Unfortunately, the ease of publishing information on the Internet translates to a medium with no oversight or “quality control,” leaving it up to the user to determine the value of online resources.

Criteria for evaluating the quality of information found on the Internet include:
• Relevance: Does the information relate to specified needs?)

• Reliability: Does the information come from a source that can be trusted to provide true and accurate content?

• Validity: Can information be verified from more than one source?

• Potential bias: Could there be a potential commercial or political bias on behalf of the site’s owner?

• Sufficiency: Is the information sufficient enough for a specific purpose? Ways to determine the quality of information on a Web site include:

• Analyzing the source of a site

• Communicating with the creator of a site

• Analyzing internal links within a site

• Evaluating search engine ranking results

• Comparing information found on the Internet with other “offline” sources, such as professional journals found at the library, to clarify ambiguous or incomplete information



Activity Sheet 2.1
Opening and Closing a Web Browser

There are three things you’ll need to connect to the Internet:

• An Internet Service Provider (ISP): An Internet Service Provider is a lot like a phone company, except instead of letting you make telephone calls to other people, an Internet Service Provider lets your computer connect to the Internet. Just like your telephone company, Internet Service Providers charge for their services—currently the average rate seems to be about $20 a month for unlimited usage. You’ve probably already heard of the most famous Internet Service Provider—America Online, or AOL.

• A Web Browser: A Web browser is a program that lets your computer view and navigates the World Wide Web. One of the most popular Web browsers is Microsoft’s own Internet Explorer. Another Web browsing program that is very popular is Netscape Navigator.

• A Phone Line and Modem or Other Connection: A modem is your computer’s very own telephone that lets it talk to other computers over the telephone line. Your existing phone line will work just fine with your modem, although it will be tied up whenever you’re connected to the Internet. If you or someone in your home is a heavy Internet user, you might consider getting a second phone line for your computer. An increasingly popular type of connection is DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) which is much faster than a dial-up connection, and is connected 24-hours a day. This type of connection is similar to what most workplaces have.

Do the following instructions:

1. Click the Windows Start button and then select Internet Explorer to start Microsoft Internet Explorer.

If this is the first time you’ve ever tried connecting to the Internet, you may be greeted by the Internet Connection Wizard. Microsoft included the Internet Connection Wizard to help you get connected to the Internet and find an Internet Service Provider. If you want, you can follow the step-by-step instructions and let the Internet Connection Wizard help find you an Internet Service Provider (ISP)— or, you can find your own.

2. Enter your user name and password, if necessary, and click Connect.

If you have previously entered your user name and password and checked the Save password option, the user name and password characters will already appear in their respective text boxes. (Your password will appear masked by asterisks or bullets.)

NOTE: If you’re connected to the Internet through a network at work, an ISDN or
DSL line, or a cable modem, you won’t hear anything at all, since these are all digital connections. Actually, it would probably pay off if you checked to see if the Internet is available in your area by cable or DSL connections.

After a connection to the Internet has been established, Internet Explorer appears on screen and displays your home page.

Once you’re finished with the Internet Explorer program, close it.

3. Click the Close button on the Microsoft Internet Explorer title bar.

The program closes and you are back at the Windows desktop.

It is important to note the difference between a browser’s home page and a Web site’s home page. A home page for a browser is the Web page that your Web browser displays when it first connects to the Internet. The default start page for Microsoft Internet Explorer is MSN (what else did you think it would be?), but you can easily change your home page—more about that in another lesson. Move on to the next lesson to learn more about the home page for a Web site.

Assessment Rubric
Opening and Closing a Web Browser


Directions: After you have finished your work, determine whether you have completed the criteria listed in the left column. Fill in the shaded column below and then turn the rubric to your teacher along with your activity.
Name: Year & Section:
Skill Score Scoring Rubric
Open Internet Explorer
4 Perform the skill easily and quickly without error or any assistance.
Enter username and password 3 Perform the skill with ease, and at moderate speed without asking for any assistance
Close the Microsoft Internet explorer 2 Perform the skill slowly, with minimal error and little assistance.
1 Perform the skill with difficulty, several errors and major assistance
TOTAL SCORE
Teacher’s Signature




Lesson 3 Elements of a Website


Description:
This lesson covers one of the performances required in exploring Microsoft 2010 application.
In this lesson the student should be able to
• identify the different elements of Web browser.

• get a score of seven (7) points in activity – Elements of Web browser.
 •
Information Sheet 3.1
Elements of a Website
Just like other windows, a website has a title bar, menu bar and other toolbars that we can use in navigating the windows.
The following illustration shows a homepage. In this case the MSN Philippines is the homepage for Internet Explorer.


Internet Explorer is a popular web browser that comes standard on many PCs. Once you know the basic parts of the Internet Explorer window, you'll be ready for web navigation, bookmarking and searching. Once you open it, the Internet Explorer 9 window should look similar to the screenshot above: one with very few buttons and elements and lots of things for web-pages to be loaded.

One thing to note here is that the color of the Internet Explorer 9 window changes with the Windows 7 theme you apply, depending on the color used by each theme.

The Buttons on the Top Left

Let’s start with the buttons on the top-left side. The big arrows, as you might have guessed already, are for navigating Back and Forward between the web-pages you visited during the current session. If you have visited only one website, well... those buttons will be grayed out and won’t do anything.
Next is the Address bar. There you type the addresses of the websites you want to visit (like www.7tutorials.com). As with any other modern browsers, you can use it as a search box too. If you type any word and press Enter it will automatically search on Bing for that word and return you a page with search results.


Included in the Address bar, are a few symbols which function like buttons. Let’s take them in order, from left to right:

• The magnifier button is obviously for searching. If Bing Suggestions are turned on, it will return to you suggestions from the search engine as you type. If you click on any of the suggestions, it will open a page with search results from Bing.



• Next is an arrow, oriented downward. If you click on it, you will access a list with the most recent sites you visited plus some of your Favorites.



• The third button is to Refresh the web-page you currently have open.
• The X button is used to Stop a web-page from being loaded or refreshed.

Opening New Tabs

Immediately after the Address bar, you will find the open tabs. If you are like me, you might consider this “ugly” and a bit too crowded. However, Microsoft wanted to offer as much screen space as possible for viewing web-sites.

If you want to open a new tab, simply click the small New Tab icon, highlighted below.


When a new tab is opened, you will see a list with your most popular sites. You can simply click on one of them, if that’s what you want to view or simply type the address in the Address bar.


Top Right Buttons: Home, Favorites, Tools

Let’s talk about the last three buttons, found on the top-right side of the Internet Explorer 9 window.

When pressing the first button, it takes you to your Hom
Close