Principles of Art :
Emphasis in a composition refers to developing points of interest to pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work.

Balance is a sense of stability in the body of work. Balance can be created by repeating same shapes and by creating a feeling of equal weight.

Harmony is achieved in a body of work by using similar elements throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to your work.

Variety refers to the differences in the work, You can achieve variety by using difference shapes, textures, colors and values in your work.

Movement adds excitement to your work by showing action and directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane.

Rhythm is a type of movement in drawing and painting. It is seen in repeating of shapes and colors. Alternating light and dark also give a sense of rhythm.

Proportion or scale refers to the relationships of the size of objects in a body of work. Proportions gives a sense of size seen as a relationship of objects. such as smallness or largeness.

Unity is seen in a painting or drawing when all the parts equal a whole. Your work should not appear disjointed or confusing.

Emphasis is to make one part of an artwork dominant over the other parts. It makes an element or object in a work stand out. To use emphasis in an artwork is to attract the viewer's eyes to a place of special importance in an artwork.

EMPHASIS In the above marble statue, master artist Michelangelo shows emphasis with the elements of texture and line. The emphasis is on the limp body of Jesus. He gives the body emphasis by having the lines of Mary's robe directed towards the body. The line direction is especially noticeable in the lines of her headdress. Michelangelo also uses texture for emphasis by making everything but Jesus' body very textured. Mary's robe and headdress shows much texture in all the drapes and folds. Can you find another element that the artist uses to show emphasis?

BALANCE arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers, or seems heavier than any other part. Two different kinds of balance are symmetrical and asymmetrical. Symmetrical (or formal) balance is when both sides of an artwork, if split down the middle, appear to be the same. For example the Japanese flag is symmetrical. Asymmetrical (or informal) balance is when two side of an artwork are different. For example, the American Flag is assymmetrical.

BALANCE Two of the elements that artist Frida Kahlo uses to show balance in the painting above are space and color. Notice how the artist uses the space to give this piece an almost symmetrical balance. She places the fruit dish right in the middle and surrounds the dish with the ears of corn. To balance out the two corners that do not have corn, Kahlo has added knots in the wood table to balance out the space. She shows a balance in color by using neutral earth-tones throughout the piece. Yet she gives it a spark of interest with the bright red fruit in the middle of the dish. Can you see any other elements which Kahlo used to show balance?

RHYTHM indicating movement by the repetition of elements. Rhythm can make an artwork seem active. Some different kinds of rhythm are: Regular rhythm - a repetition of elements that are evenly spaced. Irregular rhythm - elements that are repeated but not exactly. Progressive rhythm - as elements repeat, they increase or decrease in size.

RHYTHM An irregular rhythm is shown in the art piece above using the element of shape. Artist Elizabeth Murray uses a rhythmic pattern of bold geometric shapes which guide the viewer's eyes through the piece. First there are the two triangular, and one rectangular shapes of canvas. Then she continues the rhythm by painting more geometric shapes onto the canvases. Can you see another element in which the artist shows rhythm?

CONTRAST to show difference and diversity in an artwork by combining elements to create interest. Contrast is to provide an artwork with something interesting to break the repetitions indicating movement by the repetition of elements.

CONTRAST In the painting above Rembrandt shows contrast using the element of value. He uses shades of analogous warm colors in the entire painting. But then he draws the viewer's interest by using dark values to frame in the much lighter values in the subject's helmet and face. This framing seems to give the helmet a life of its own making it stand out. Why do you think the artist made the helmet appear shiny and new, but showed the man wearing it as old and aged?

MOVEMENT creating the illusion of action or physical change in position. Leading viewers to sense action, OR, the path the viewer's eye follows throughout a artwork. Movement is used in art to give the feeling of action and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork.

MOVEMENT This master artist uses the element of line to show movement in this piece. He uses both obvious lines and implied (sensed, but not actually there) lines. The lines he uses draw the viewer into a repeating circular movement from the reader's face, to the book, to the resting arm, then up the bent in her arm back up to the neck, and then to the face, and over again. There is an implied line from the reader's face to the book. The line of the arm holding the book following down to the resting arm is a more obvious line. The line created in her dress from the bent in her arm is an obvious actual line. And then the line of her neck is a little more subtle.

HARMONY/UNITY the quality of wholeness or oneness that is achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of art. The arrangement of elements and principles to create a feeling of completeness.

HARMONY/UNITY To show unity in the painting above, artist Berthe Morisot uses the elements of texture and color. The mood of the painting seems to be light, simple, and airy. For the texture, to show consistency with the mood, she uses seemingly simple and airy brush strokes. And for color, Morisot opts for soft pastels to continue in the light, airy mood of the painting. Can you identify any other elements that the artist used to give this artwork harmony and unity?