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RIZAL'S EDUCATION

BINAN TO EUROPE

RIZAL’S EDUCATION : Studies in Manila Studies in Europe RIZAL’S EDUCATION

Early Education in Calamba and Biñan :
Early Education in Calamba and Biñan At the age of 3, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. At the age of 5, while learning to read and write, Rizal already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age of 8, Rizal wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language.

“Sa Aking Mga Kabata” :
“Sa Aking Mga Kabata” Kapagka ang baya'y sadyang umiibigSa kanyang salitang kaloob ng langit,Sanglang kalayaan nasa ring masapitKatulad ng ibong nasa himpapawid.Pagka't ang salita'y isang kahatulanSa bayan, sa nayo't mga kaharian,At ang isang tao'y katulad, kabagayNg alin mang likha noong kalayaan.Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salitaMahigit sa hayop at malansang isda,Kaya ang marapat pagyamaning kusaNa tulad sa inang tunay na nagpala. Ang wikang Tagalog tulad din sa LatinSa Ingles, Kastila at salitang anghel,Sapagka't ang Poong maalam tuminginAng siyang naggawad, nagbigay sa atin.Ang salita nati'y huwad din sa ibaNa may alfabeto at sariling letra,Na kaya nawala'y dinatnan ng sigwaAng lunday sa lawa noong dakong una.

Early Education in Calamba and Biñan :
Early Education in Calamba and Biñan Rizal’s parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second, Maestro Lucas Padua. Later, an old man named Leon Monroy, a former classmate of Rizal’s father became his tutor. This teacher lived at the Rizal home and instructed Rizal in Spanish and Latin. Unfortunately, he did not live long. He died five months later. After Monroy’s death, Rizal’s parents decided to send their gifted son to a private school in Biñan.

First Day in Biñan School :
First Day in Biñan School Paciano enrolled Rizal to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. Rizal met the bully, Pedro. Rizal, who was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher, challenged Pedro to a fight. Rizal having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy. After class, a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. Rizal having the weaker arm, lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk.

Best Student in School :
Best Student in School In academic studies, Rizal beat all Binan boys. He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects. They were all jealous of his intellectual superiority that they wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Rizal had a fight outside the school, and even told lies to discredit him before the teacher’s eyes. Consequently the teacher had to punish Rizal. He received many whippings and strokes from the ferule. Rare was the day when he was not stretched on the bench for a whipping or punished with five or six blows on the open palm.

Highlights of Rizal’s stay in Biñan :
Highlights of Rizal’s stay in Biñan Rizal learned about the Hongkong General Sir John Bowring, who paid his uncle Jose Alberto a visit. Bowring’s popular writings include: (1) In the Cross of Christ I Glory (2) Watchman: Tell us of the Night Bowring mentioned of a Philippine History book written by a certain Spaniard “Morga”

Rizal’s Early Religiosity :
Rizal’s Early Religiosity Teodora had a vow to have a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage (Antipolo)Rizal learned about the Hongkong General Sir John Bowring, who paid his uncle Jose Alberto a visit. June 6, 1868 – pilgrimage to Antipolo with the Father At the age of 5, able to read the Spanish family Bible (Historia Sagrada) Grew from a religious family Schooled in catholic schools

Precedent Events to the Ignatian Life :
Precedent Events to the Ignatian Life Paciano –
Rizal’s brother was studying at Colegio de San Jose under the tutelage of Fr. Jose Burgos
Cavite Mutiny – January 20 1872 – led by Sergeant Lamadrid
GOMBURZA execution February 17, 1872
Arrest of Teodora
Rizal took and Passed the entrance test in Letran
June 10, 1872 – Rizal Matriculated at Ateneo Fr. Magin Ferrando –(school registrar) denied Rizal’s entry Fr. Manuel Xerez-Burgos (nephew of Fr. Burgos) interceded

Education in Ateneo :
Education in Ateneo 1768 - Jesuits were expelled from the archipelago
1859 – Jesuits returned
1865 - Ateneo Municipal de Manila offered secondary course (equivalent to college?) Fr. Jose Bech – first teacher of Rizal in Ateneo

Rizal’s Rigid Schedule :
Rizal’s Rigid Schedule Study and reading until 4 p.m. Some of the books read by Rizal: ( 1) The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas (2 ) Travels in the Philippines by Dr. Feodor (Fyodor) Jagor 4 – 5 exercise 5 – 6 social and misc obligations

Ateneo Municipal de Manila :
Ateneo Municipal de Manila Rizal was a member of the academy of Spanish Literature and the Academy of Natural Sciences. Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez noticed Rizal’s proficiency in Spanish language Fr. Jose Villaclara influenced the scientific attitude of Rizal He wrote Through Education Our Motherland Receives Light and The Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education which showed the importance of religion in education.

“Through Education the Motherland Receives Light : “Through Education the Motherland Receives Light And as the spring doth sustenance bestowOn all the plants, on bushes in the mead,Its placid plenty goes to overflowAnd endlessly with lavish love to feedThe banks by which it wanders, gliding slow,Supplying beauteous nature's every need;So he who prudent Education doth procureThe towering heights of honor will secure. From out his lips the water, crystal pure,Of perfect virtue shall not cease to go.With careful doctrines of his faith made sure,The powers of evil he will overthrow,Like foaming waves that never long endure,But perish on the shore at every blow;And from his good example other men shall learnTheir upward steps toward the heavenly paths to turn.Within the breast of wretched humankindShe lights the living flame of goodness bright;The hands of fiercest criminal doth bind;And in those breasts will surely pour delightWhich seek her mystic benefits to find,Those souls She sets aflame with love of right.It is a noble fully-rounded EducationThat gives to life its surest consolation. The vital breath of prudent EducationInstills a virtue of enchanting power;She lifts the motherland to highest stationAnd endless dazzling glories on her shower.And as the zephyr's gentle exhalationRevives the matrix of the fragrant flower,So education multiplies her gifts of grace;With prudent hand imparts them to the human race.For her a mortal-man will gladly partWith all he has; will give his calm repose;For her are born all science and all art,That brows of men with laurel fair enclose.As from the towering mountain's lofty heartThe purest current of the streamlet flows,So education without stint or measure givesSecurity and peace to lands in which she lives.Where Education reigns on lofty seatYouth blossoms forth with vigor and agility;He error subjugates with solid feet,And is exalted by conceptions of nobility.She breaks the neck of vice and its deceit;Black crime turns pale at Her hostility;The barbarous nations She knows how to tame,From savages creates heroic fame.

“Through Education the Motherland Receives Light : “Through Education the Motherland Receives Light And as the mighty rock aloft may towerAbove the center of the stormy deepIn scorn of storm, or fierce Sou'wester's power,Or fury of the waves that raging seep,Until, their first mad hatred spent, they cower,And, tired at last, subside and fall asleep, --So he that takes wise Education by the hand,Invincible shall guide the reigns of motherland.On sapphires shall his service be engraved,A thousand honors to him by his land be granted:For in their bosoms will his noble sons have savedLuxuriant flowers his virtue had transplanted:And by the love of goodness ever laved,The lords and governors will see implantedTo endless days, the Christian Education,Within their noble, faith-enrapture nation.And as in early morning we beholdThe ruby sun pour forth resplendent rays;And lovely dawn her scarlet and her gold,Her brilliant colors all about her sprays;So skillful noble Teaching doth unfoldTo living minds the joy of virtuous ways.She offers our dear motherland the lightThat leads us to immortal glory's height.

“Intimate Alliance between Education and Religion : “Intimate Alliance between Education and Religion As the climbing ivy over lofty elm Creeps tortuously, together the adornment Of the verdant plain, embellishing Each other and together growing, But should the kindly elm refuse its aid The ivy would impotent and friendless wither; So is Education to Religion By spiritual alliance firmly bound. Through Religion, Education gains renown, and Woe to the impious mind that blindly spurning The sapient teachings of Religion, this Unpolluted fountainhead forsakes. As the sprout, growing from the pompous vine, Proudly offers us its honeyed clusters While the generous and fresh’ning waters Of celestial virtue give new life To Education true, shedding On it warmth and light; because of them The vine smells sweet and gives delicious fruit. Without Religion, Human Education Is like unto a vessel struck by winds Which, sore beset, is of its helm deprived By the roaring blows and buffets of the dread Tempestuous Boreas [The north wind -- ly], who fiercely wields His power until he proudly sends her down Into the deep abysses of the angered sea. As heaven’s dew the meadow feeds and strengthens So that blooming flowers all the earth Embroider in the days of spring; so also If Religion holy nourishes Education with its doctrines, she Shall walk in joy and generosity Toward the Good, and everywhere bestrew The fragrant and luxuriant fruits of Virtue. 19 April 1876.

“Mi Primera Inspiracion” : “Mi Primera Inspiracion” Why falls so rich a spray of fragrance from the bowers of the balmy flowers upon this festive day? Why from woods and vales do we hear sweet measures ringing that seem to be the singing of a choir of nightingales? Why in the grass below do birds start at the wind's noises, unleashing their honeyed voices as they hop from bough to bough? Why should the spring that glows its crystalline murmur be tuning to the zephyr's mellow crooning as among the flowers it flows? Why seems to me more endearing, more fair than on other days, the dawn's enchanting face among red clouds appearing? The reason, dear mother, is they feast your day of bloom: the rose with its perfume, the bird with its harmonies. And the spring that rings with laughter upon this joyful day with its murmur seems to say: "Live happily ever after!“ And from that spring in the grove now turn to hear the first note that from my lute I emote to the impulse of my love!

Early Religious Writings : Early Religious Writings TO THE VIRGIN MARYDear Mary, giving comfort and sweet peaceTo all afflicted mortals; thou the springWhence flows a current of relief, to bringOur soil fertility that does not cease;Upon thy throne, where thou dost reign on high,Oh, list with pity as I woeful grieveAnd spread thy radiant mantle to receiveMy voice which rises swiftly to the sky.Placid Mary, thou my mother dear,My sustenance, my fortitude must be,And in this fearsome sea my way must steer.If deprivation comes to buffet me, And if grim death in agony draws near,Oh, succor me, from anguish set me free

Early Religious Writings : Early Religious Writings To the child Jesus How, God-child, hast Thou come to earth in cave forlorn? Does fortune now deride Thee When Thou art scarcely born? Ah, woe! Celestial king Who mortal form doesn’t keep, Woulds’t rather than be Sovereign, Be shepherd of Thy Sheep?

Other writings & works : Other writings & works In Memory of My Village ( 1876) Sculpture – The Sacred Heart of Jesus Sculpture – The Power of Science over Death Farewell Dialogue with the Students

The Atenean Degree : The Atenean Degree March 23, 1877 – Bachelor of Arts (Highest Honor)

Education in Manila : Education in Manila April 1877 – Rizal matriculated at the University of Santo Tomas Studied Philosophy and Letters during his first year 1878- Shifted to Medicine specializing in Ophthalmology when he found out that his mother was going blind November 25, 1881 – the title surveyor (He finished surveying in Ateneo)

University of Santo Tomas : University of Santo Tomas 1879 - joined the poetry contest sponsored by Manila Lyceum of Art and Literature To The Filipino Youth won the First Price (dedicated to the Youthful Filipino – members of the El Juventud Escolar – which was suppressed in 1872) The Councils of Gods (Rizal’s entry to the same competition December 8, 1880 – wrote the play Al Junto Pasig (Beside the Pasig)

“To The Filipino Youth : “To The Filipino Youth Thou, whose voice divine Rivals Philomel's refrain And with varied line Through the night benign Frees mortality from pain; Thou, who by sharp strife Wakest thy mind to life ; And the memory bright Of thy genius' light Makest immortal in its strength ; And thou, in accents clear Of Phoebus, to Apelles dear ; Or by the brush's magic art Takest from nature's store a part, To fig it on the simple canvas' length ; Go forth, and then the sacred fire Of thy genius to the laurel may aspire ; To spread around the fame, And in victory acclaim, Through wider spheres the human name. Day, O happy day, Fair Filipinas, for thy land! Hold high the brow serene, O youth, where now you stand; Let the bright sheen Of your grace be seen, Fair hope of my fatherland! Come now, thou genius grand, And bring down inspiration; With thy mighty hand, Swifter than the wind's violation, Raise the eager mind to higher station. Come down with pleasing light Of art and science to the fight, O youth, and there untie The chains that heavy lie, Your spirit free to blight. See how in flaming zone Amid the shadows thrown, The Spaniard'a holy hand A crown's resplendent band Proffers to this Indian land. Thou, who now wouldst rise On wings of rich emprise, Seeking from Olympian skies Songs of sweetest strain, Softer than ambrosial rain;

University of Santo Tomas : University of Santo Tomas Rizal’s political thinking was influenced by the period of enlightenment Rizal was unhappy at this Dominican Institution of higher learning because: (1) the Dominican professors were hostile to him (2) the Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards (3) the method of instruction was obsolete and repressive After finishing the fourth year of his medical course, Rizal decided to study in Spain . He could no longer endure the rampant bigotry, discrimination, and the hostility in the University of Santo Tomas.

Education in Europe : Education in Europe May 3, 1882 – left Philippines secretly -Traveled alone to Europe Madrid in May 1882 Continued his studies in Medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid Degree of Licentiate in Medicine in June 21, 1884 Degree of Philosophy and Letters in June 19, 1885

Spain as a realization : Spain as a realization It was a venue for realizing Rizal’s dreams. He finished his studies in Madrid and this to him was the realization of the bigger part of his ambition. His vision broadened to the point of awakening in him an understanding of human nature, sparking in him the realization that his people needed him. It must have been this sentiment that prompted him to pursue, during the re-organizational meeting of the Circulo-Hispano-Filipino, to be one of its activities, the publication of a book to which all the members would contribute papers on the various aspects and conditions of Philippines life.

The Diariong Tagalog : The Diariong Tagalog August 20, 1882 – published El Amor Patria in The Diariong Tagalog, with a pen-name Laong-Laan Marcelo Del Pilar – Translated the El Amor Patria into Tagalog Francisco Calco – Editor in chief of Diariong Tagalog Other articles of Rizal in Diariong Tagalog: 1 Los Viajes (Travels) 2 Revista de Madrid (Review of Madrid) – not published anymore because the publication had ceased

The Circulo - Hispano : The Circulo - Hispano Filipino student organization Pablo Ortiga – vice president of the council of the Philippines They Asked me for Verses Mr Juan Atayde – Spaniard born in Manila - a Military Officer – Supporter of the Circulo

On Masonry : On Masonry 1883 – Rizal joined Masonic Lodge Acacia in Madrid Reasons: 1 Because of its liberal ideas 2 Because of its scientific attitude 3 Possible help of the Masons in Rizal’s crusade?? November 15, 1890 – Rizal became Master Mason in Lodge Solidaridad

On Masonry : On Masonry ..Masonry preaches and practices the sacred principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity among all men and they compose the Masonic virtues, the only virtues whose practice would banish among men wars and abuses and bring about that state of which all great reformers dream. In this concept, for the present, virtue has no other temple but the Masonic temple from which emerge some gleams of light that illuminate the minds of many lay thinkers. In this concept. Virtue is no longer a barren, rare, unnatural, fierce or devout quality. Virtue becomes beautiful, fruitful, civilizing, and universal for what is more beautiful than the liberty, equality, and fraternity of all men?

The Banquet Speech : The Banquet Speech 1884 – National Exhibition of Fine Arts in Madrid June 25, 1884 – Banquet Speech (called Brindis) at Café Ingles Juan Luna “Spolarium” – First Place Felix Ressurection Hidalgo – “Christian Virgin Exposed to populace” – Second Place December 11, 1884 – Teodora sent letter to Rizal warning him of the possible effects of the Speech

The Brindis : The Brindis …. In reflecting on their canvasses the splendiferous rays of unfading glory with which they surround their native land, both express the spirit of our social, moral, and spiritual life: mankind subjected to harsh tests; unredeemed mankind; reason and aspiration in an open struggle with preoccupations, fanaticism, and injustices….. …..I drink then to the health of our artists, Luna and Hidalgo……. I drink to the health of the Filipino youth, sacred hope of my native land, that they may imitate such precious examples so that Mother Spain…… implement soon the reforms she has contemplated for a long time. The furrow is ready and the ground is not sterile!.....

Spain as a realization : Spain as a realization Read books: Uncle Tom’s Cabin – by Harriet Beecher Stowe The Wandering Jew – by Eugene Sue June 24, 1884 - Rizal joined and won Greek competition Other writing: Hymn To Work

Spain as a realization : Spain as a realization The proposal for the book was unanimously approved. But afterwards, difficulties and objections were raised, and a number of gentlemen stood up and refused to discuss the matter any further in 1884. Rizal decided not to press the issue any longer. Although the book was never written, the next year, Pedro Paterno published his Ninay, a novel sub-titled Costumbres filipinas (Philippines Customs), thus partly fulfilling the original purpose of Rizal’s plan.

Noli Me Tangere : Noli Me Tangere The idea of writing a novel grew on him, and later he decided to write and worked hard for Noli Me Tangere He never told anyone about it until it was finished, though some of his companions knew what he was doing He wrote half of the novel in Madrid, a quarter of it in Paris and the rest in Germany

Education in Europe : Education in Europe University of Paris (France) University of Heidelberg (Germany) He stayed in the house of Lutheran Minister Dr. Karl Ullmer Inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow He also met Dr Adolph Meyer - scientist

Education in Europe : Education in Europe July 1885 – Rizal arrived in Paris Rizal quickly found the eye clinic of the famed opthalmologist, Louis de Wecker. From Madrid, Rizal in 1885 went to Paris and continued his medical studies under an eye specialist. The next year, Rizal went to Germany and studied ophthalmology. He was registered at Dr. Louis de Wecker’s clinic. After four months training, he learned the technique of the eye operation.

Education in Europe : Education in Europe While Rizal was in Paris, he kept busy writing his novel. During his free time, he visited his fellow countrymen – Pardo de Taveras – and (Trinidad, Felix and Paz) including Juan Luna. Luna Painted a historical canvass, “The Blood Compact” in which Rizal posed as Sikatuna and Trinidad as Legaspi. He also posed for a group picture called “The Death of Cleopatra” wherein he dressed as an Egyptian priest.

Education in Europe : Education in Europe Rizal also had special training under Dr. Otto Becker. Rizal accounted: “For some 13 days now, I’ve been attending the clinic for eye diseases under the direction of another famous oculist called Otto Becker.” Under Dr. Becker there was a vigorous course of study with less attention to actual operations. The experience in Paris with first-hand patient operations helped Rizal to emerge as one of Becker’s best students.

Education in Europe : Education in Europe Aside from these two clinics, Rizal also had a practice at a certain Clinic in Berlin where he worked as an assistant of Dr. Schultzer, an eminent German ophthalmologist. “At the hospital I practice and examine patients who come everyday. The professor corrects our mistakes in diagnosis; I help in the treatment and although, I don’t see so many operations as I did at Paris, here I study more the practical side.” In Heidelberg, Rizal had a privilege to work in the clinic of a noted Polish ophthalmologist, Dr. Javier Galezowsky.

University of Heidelberg : University of Heidelberg 25-year-old Rizal completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned Prof. Otto Becker in Heidelberg Left Heidelberg a poem, “A las flores del Heidelberg” (April 22, 1886); both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West

A las flores del Heidelberg : A las flores del Heidelberg Go to my country, go foreign flowers, Planted by the traveler on his way, And there beneath that sky of blue That over my beloved towers, Speak for this traveler to say What faith in his homeland he breathes to you. Go and say.... Say that when the dawn First brew your calyx open there Beside the River Necker chill, You saw him standing by you, very still, Reflecting on the primrose flush you wear. Say that when the morning light Her toll of perfume from you wrung, While playfully she whispered, "How I love you!“ He too murmured here above you Tender love songs in his native tongue. That when the rising sun the height Of Koenigsthul in early morn first spies, And with its tepid light Is pouring life in valley, wood, and grove, He greets the sun as it begins to rise, Which in his native land is blazing straight above. And tell them of that day he staid And plucked you from the border of the path, Amid the ruins of the feudal castle, By the River Neckar, and in the sylvan shade. Tell them what he told you As tenderly he took Your pliant leaves and pressed them in a book, Where now its well-worn pages close enfold you. Carry, carry, flowers of Rhine, Love to every love of mine, Peace to my country and her fertile loam, Virtue to her women, courage to her men, Salute those darling ones again, Who formed the sacred circle of our home. And when you reach that shore, Each kiss I press upon you now, Deposit on the pinions of the wind, And those I love and honor and adore Will feel my kisses carried to their brow. Ah, flowers, you may fare through, Conserving still, perhaps, your native hue; Yet, far from Fatherland, heroic loam To which you owe your life, The perfume will be gone from you; For aroma is your soul; it cannot roam Beyond the skies which saw it born, nor e'er forget.

Rizal’s Life in Europe : Rizal’s Life in Europe Jose Rizal lived in Europe for 10 years. He could converse in more than 10 different tongues. (23 languages & dialects) Excelled at martial arts, fencing, sculpture, painting, teaching, anthropology, and journalism, among other things. During his European sojourn, he also began to write novels. Rizal finished his first book, Noli Me Tangere, while living in Wilhemsfeld with the Reverend Karl Ullmer.

Rizal’s Life in Europe : Rizal’s Life in Europe He transferred to the University of Leipzig to study psychology and history. Here he became a friend of Professor Friedrich Ratzel, one of the historians who helped change the methods of historical research. Rizal also contemplated to enroll as a student of law in the famous University at Heidelberg, but his brother Paciano was not in favor of it: “I do not think that the study of law will suit you, but rather the arts; in this I am of the same view as our parish priest, and really a lawyer here is landlord, teacher, farmer, contractor, that is to say, everything but a lawyer; on the other hand, those who do practice law collect their fees for defending one side or the other, whether it is right or wrong, something which would run against the grain of your conscience; while there are few who practice medicine and the arts, they make progress here and they live peacefully, the one thing we should look for in this world”

The Birth of Noli : The Birth of Noli The book which Rizal was writing -- he named it Noli Me Tangere -- was finished in Berlin on February 22, 1887. But on that day in Berlin, Rizal desperate. He had no money to publish his book. Vainly he was struggling to save money by eating only one meal a day, largely bread and coffee, which cost him but a few centavos. Rizal confided to his old friend Fernando Canon about the dark period, he said: "I did not believe that Noli Me Tangere would ever be published. I was in Berlin, heartbroken, weakened, and discouraged from hunger and deprivation. I was on the point of throwing my work into the fire as a thing accursed and fit only to die; . .

The Providential Viola : The Providential Viola Due to financial constraints, Rizal had to look for the cheapest book printer and eventually got the Beliner Buchdrukerei-Actien-Gesselschaft-Setzerinnen-Schule de Lette Verreins to print the book. He was charged 300 pesos for 2,000 copies and he had to borrow the amount from his friend Maximo Viola. The book finally came out in March 1887. The Filipinos commemorate February 22, 1887 as the birthday of Noli Me Tangere, for it was that book that made José Rizal the inevitable leader of the Filipinos, and started him on the road to martyrdom and immortality.

Back Home : Back Home After a visit to Vienna, Rome, and a few other cities of Italy, Dr. Rizal took a ship from Marseilles and started home on July 5, 1887, at last ready to operate upon the cataracts in his mother's eyes.

Sources: : Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Rizal http://www.scribd.com/doc/8424021/Dr-Jose-Rizal-at-the-University-of-Santo-Tomas http://www.scribd.com/doc/21694647/Life-and-Works-of-Rizal http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~fasawwu/resources/rizal/biography.htm http://asianhistory.about.com/od/profilesofasianleaders/p/joserizalbio.htm http://www.joserizal.ph/ed02.html http://joserizal.info/Biography/man_and_martyr/chapter04.htm
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