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STUDY GUIDE IN SOCIOLOGY

SYLLABUS IN SOCIOLOGY

COURSE SYLLABUS (SOCIOLOGY)

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CHAPTER 1 (THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF SOCIOLOGY)

CHAPTER - 1
THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF SOCIOLOGY
( A Big Step Towards the Study of Society)

CHAPTER TOPICS
The Sociological Perspective
Seeing the Broader Social Context
Foundation of Sociology
Definition of Sociology
Sociology and other Sciences
Pioneers in the Study of Sociology
Development of Sociology in the Philippines

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Describe the sociological perspective and explain its importance in understanding human behavior.
Identify the different factors involved in seeing a broader social context.
Understand the basic assumptions that prompted the birth of sociology as a science.
Understand that sociology studies not only the social phenomena but the cause of occurrence of social phenomena.
Describe the differences between social sciences and natural sciences.
Recognize the contributions of Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber in the development of sociology.
Trace the development of sociology in the Philippines.

CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
How would your usual way of looking at the world changed if you adopted a sociological perspective?

Think of various social locating factors that identify you, both as an individual and as a member of particular group. What does this information tell others about you? How does it influence your personal life?

How would your common sense way of living changed by adopting scientific method?

How do sociologists study the causes of the occurrence of social phenomena?

How is sociology as a science different from other sciences? Similar to other sciences?

How was sociology developed from Comte to Weber? What are the points of continuity and point of departure from Comte to Weber?

What do you think are the unique characteristics of a Filipino sociologist?

KEY CONCEPTS:
1. Anomie – Durkheim’s term referring to a condition characterized by the relative absence or confusion of values in a society or group
2. Bourgeoisie – refers to the owners of the means of production and distribution in a capitalist society
3. Class conflict – Marx’s term for the struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie
4. Common sense – that things that “everyone knows” are true
5. Economics – the scientific study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
6. Good – in economics, anything (an object or service) that can satisfy human wants, obtained through conscious effort
7. Logical positivism – a philosophical position that developed from positivism, holding that the truth of any statement lies in its verification through sensory experience
8. Natural science – the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment
9. Patters – recurring characteristics or events
10. Political Science – the branch of the social science that studies the organization and administration of government, its history and theory
11. Positivism – the application of the scientific approach to the social world
12. Proletariat – in its most general usage, a Marxian term referring to a modern type of lower class consisting of wage earners who do not own the means of production but instead sell their labor
13. Psychology – the science that studies the behavior of living organisms, both animal and human, with an emphasis on the study of individual behavior and its relationship to environmental stimuli
14. Science - the application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods
15. Social integration – the degree to which people feel part of social groups
16. Social sciences – the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
17. Society – a term used by sociologists to refer to a group of people who share a culture and a territory
18. Sociology – the scientific study of human behavior
19. Sociological perspective – an approach to understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
20. Social location – people’s group memberships because of their location in history and
21. Tribe – in most usage, a non-literate community or a collection of such community occupying a common geographic area having similar language and culture


MAKING CONNECTIONS:
1. Discuss your own social location. What is it, and how has it influenced your life? Pinpoint specific influences.

2. Write a term paper or do an oral report on issues pertaining to the homeless in the Philippines. Use sociological perspective.

3. Present a paper or oral discussion on the problems of using common sense to generalize about human behavior. Find examples in the media of “bad generalizations” (e.g. tabloid, talk shows on TV) Show how scientific method rectifies these “bad generalizations.”

4. Select a particular social problem and indicate how the social sciences besides sociology would approach it. How would a sociological perspective on that problem be different, and what would be its unique contribution?

RESOURCES:
Giddens, Anthony (1996). Introduction to Sociology (2nd Ed.) pp: 6-9
Henslin, James M (1995). Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, pp: 4-17
Kendall, Diana (2002). Sociology in Our Times (3rd Ed.) pp: 1-15
Pasigui, Ronnie et.al, (2006). Applied Sociology: A Modular Approach, pp: 1-6
Renzetti, Claire & Curran, Daniel J. (2000). Living Sociology (2nd Ed.) pp: 1-13
Scott, Wolliam P. (1988). Dictionary of Sociology

WEBLINKS:
http://www.abinteractive.com
http://www.sociology.wadsworth.com
http://www.wwnorton.com
http://www.wiziq.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociology
http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/weber.htm

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER - 2
ANTHROPOLOGY
( The Dawn and Dusk of Man)

CHAPTER TOPICS
Definition of Anthropology
The Localities of Homo
The First Filipinos
The myth of Malakas and Maganda

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Discuss the nature and scope of anthropology
Identify the different locations of the homo
Recognize that Philippines is rich of archeological traces
Understand the lesson of the myth of creation

CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
What does anthropologists study?
Where did homos originate?
Do you think the tabon men were Filipinos?
What is the role of Malakas and Maganda in the study of anthropology?

KEY CONCEPTS:

1. Applied anthropology – direct application of anthropological theories to existing situations
2. Anthropology – the study of human beings
3. Archeology - The systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery
4. Fossils - are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints, The word fossil is derived from the Latin word fossils, which means "to be dug up"
5. Homo erectus – literally means erect man
6. Homo habilis – literally means handy human beings
7. Paleontology – the study of fossils
8. Physical anthropology – a branch of anthropology that focuses on the physical aspects of man


MAKING CONNECTIONS:

1. Conduct informal research on archeological remains in your place. Make notes on current their dates and historical trace. Share your findings to the class.

2. Visit a museum and look for some artifacts. Record your investigation, focusing on its origin and its date.


TEAM TEACHING SUGGESTIONS:

Invite any of the following:
1. An expert to discuss the problems of preserving fossils in the museums.

2. An archeologist to discuss his or her latest findings.


RESOURCES:
Ember, Carol & Ember Melvin (1981). Anthropology, pp: 1-17
Pasigui, Ronnie et.al, (2006). Applied Sociology: A Modular Approach, pp: 230 - 235
Scott, William P. (1988). Dictionary of Sociology


WEBLINKS:
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/5727/arts2.html
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/phil._culture/traditional_arts/glimpses/prehistory/glances/glances_tabon

CHAPTER 3 THE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

CHAPTER - 3
THE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
( Asking and Answering Sociological Questions)


CHAPTER TOPICS
Four Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology
Later Thinkers: Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas
Sociological Research versus Common Sense Knowledge
The Research Process
Six Basic Research Methods
Linking Theory and Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Understand the nature of the 4 sociological theories in understanding the society
Identify the contributions of Contemporary thinkers: Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas in the study of society
Identify the important aspects of sociological research that are not present in common sense knowledge
Identify and discuss the different steps in a research process
Describe the six research methods or research design used by sociologists and indicate how one decides which one to use
Describe the ways in which sociologists combine research and theory in their work

CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
Why is it important to use the theoretical perspectives in the study of human experience and human society?

What are the points of continuity and points of departure of Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas from their predecessors?

What do you think is the problem in taking common sense as a source of knowledge?

What is the most difficult process involved in doing a research? Why?

What are the factors to be considered in choosing a research method?

How research and theory work together?


KEY CONCEPTS:

1. Content analysis – the examination of a source, such as journal article, television talk show, to identify its themes
2. Documents – written sources
3. Feminist sociology – a contemporary sociological perspective that examines gender as a central organizing factor in the social world
4. Gender – the socially constructed cluster of behavioral patterns and personality traits associated with masculinity and femininity
5. Hypothesis – a statement of the expected relationship between the variable according to predictions from theory
6. Interview – direct questioning of respondents
7. Macro-level research – large scale research
8. Micro-level research – small scale research
9. Population – the target group to be studied
10. Questionnaires – list of questions to be asked
11. Random sample – a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
12. Reliability – the extent to which data produce consistent results
13. Replication – repeating a study in order to test its findings
14. Research design – any plan for the collection, analysis, and evaluation of data
15. Sample – the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
16. Social research – any research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interactions
17. Survey – the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
18. Theory – a general statement about some parts of the world fit together and how they work; and explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
19. Validity – the extent to which an operational definition measures what was intended
20. Variable – a factor or a concept thought to be significant for human behavior, which varies from one case to another

MAKING CONNECTIONS:
Set up a hypothetical research for a relatively straightforward sociological problem. Here is a way to think through the steps hypothetically:
1. Select a topic: what is the social problem you would like to know more about?

2. Define the problem: what exactly do you want to learn about this topic?

3. Review the literature: what sources would you use if you were actually going to conduct this research?

4. Formulate a hypothesis: can you predict a relationship between or among the variables you have chosen?

5. Choose a research method – Which of the methods reviewed would be best for gathering the data you need?

6. Collect the data: how would you go about gathering the information needed for your study? How would you assure the validity and reliability of your data?

7. Analyze the results: what statistical tests would be useful in your analysis?

8. Share the results: how would you go about distributing your findings?
Present your hypothetical model to the rest of the class.


RESOURCES:
Giddens, Anthony (1996). Introduction to Sociology (2nd Ed.) pp: 18-29
Henslin, James M (1995). Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, pp: 118-137
Pasigui, Ronnie et.al, (2006). Applied Sociology: A Modular Approach, pp: 6-7
Scott, Wolliam P. (1988). Dictionary of Sociology

WEBLINKS:
http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/33375-MAJOR-SOCIOLOGICAL-PERSPECTIVES
http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/IntroTheoriesIndex.html
http://ezinearticles.com/?An-Introduction-to-the-Theoretical-Perspectives-of-Sociology&id=2383749
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociological_Perspectives
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